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9th August 2016 Current Affairs Questions and Answers

9th August 2016 Current Affairs MCQs, Quiz, Questions : Current Affairs for August 2016 ,  Daily Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) for In...

Major Buddhist councils, King and Venue

Major 6 Buddhist councils, King and Venue: Six Buddhist councils have been convened. Buddhist Councils marked important turning points in the story of early Buddhism. This story spans the time from immediately after the death and parinirvana of the historical Buddha in the 5th century BCE to some time early in the first millennium CE.  Here is a short description:
First Buddhist Council (400 BC):
- Held soon after the death of the Buddha around 400 BCE.
- Presided by monk Mahakasyapa.
- Held by Magadha king Ajatasatru in Rajagriha.
- Objective was to preserve the Buddha’s sayings (suttas) and monastic rules (Vinaya).
- According to some sources, the Abhidhamma Pitaka, or its matika, was also included.
- Also the Sangha made the unanimous decision to keep all the rules of the Vinaya, even the lesser and minor rules.
Second Buddhist Council (4th Century):
- Held about 100 years after the Buddha’s demise in 383 BC.
- Held at Vaisali under the presidentship of Sabakami, convened by King Kalasoka.
- Objective was  to settle a dispute on Vinaya Pitaka, the code of discipline. The dispute was on 10 Points such as storing salt in horn, eating after midday, eating once and going to villages for alms, eating sour milk after one's meal etc. It was not settles and Buddhism sects appeared for the first time. The subgroups were Sthaviravada, Mahasanghika and Sarvastivada.  

Third Buddhist Council (247 BC):
- Held at Pataliputra under the patronage of King Asoka and under the presidency of Moggaliputta Tissa.
- Sent Buddhist missionaries to other countries
- Objective was to purify the Buddhist movement from opportunistic factions
- The teachings of Buddha which were under two baskets were now classified in 3 baskets as Abhidhamma Pitaka was established in this council, and they were known as "Tripitaka".
- Origin of Theravada school.
Fourth Buddhist Council (1st Century):
- In 72AD The Fourth Buddhist Council was held at Kundalvana, Kashmir in 72 AD under the patronage of Kushan king Kanishka and the president of this council was Vasumitra.- This council distinctly divided the Buddhism into 2 sects Mahayan & Hinayan.
- Kanishka’s council translated Abhidharna texts from Prakrit to Sanskrit  
Fifth Buddhist Council (1871)
- Fifth Buddhist Council took place in 1871 under the patronage of King Mindon in Mandalay, Burma. 
- It was presided by Jagarabhivamsa, Narindabhidhaja, and Sumangalasami. 
- The idea was to recite all the teachings of the Buddha and examine them systematically if any of them was dropped or altered.
Sixth Buddhist Council (1954)
- In 1954 The Sixth Buddhist Council was held in 1954 in Burma at Kaba Aye, in Yangoon under the patronage of Burmese Government led by Prime Minister U Nu. 
- Construction of Maha Passana Guha, which is very much similar to India's Sattapanni Cave where the first Buddhist Council had been held, was authorized by the government.
- It was aimed to preserve the genuine Dhamma and Vinaya Pitaka.