Featured Post

9th August 2016 Current Affairs Questions and Answers

9th August 2016 Current Affairs MCQs, Quiz, Questions : Current Affairs for August 2016 ,  Daily Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) for In...

Bio Toilets in India and Indian Railways

Bio Toilets are based on Bio-digester technology which was initially developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the defence personnel. The enterprise is pioneering this, in an integrated approach, and taking this effective and innovative sanitation solution to the civil population with varying applications.
Bio Toilets Working Principle: 
  • A collection of anaerobic bacteria that has been adapted to work at temperatures as low as -5°C and as high as 50°C act as inocula (seed material) to the bio-digesters and convert the organic human waste into water, methane, and carbon-dioxide. 
  • The anaerobic process inactivates the pathogens responsible for water-borne diseases and treats the fecal matter without the use of an external energy source. 
  • The only by-products of the waste treatment process are pathogen-free water, which is good for gardening, and biogas, which can be used for cooking. 
  • Bio-toilets do not require sewage connectivity and because the process is self-contained, bio-toilets are also maintenance-free. 
  • Indian Railways in September 2015 Develops Hybrid Vacuum Toilets with a design that combines the advantages of Vacuum toilets and those of Biotoilets to create a new design of “Hybrid Vacuum Toilet”.
Some facts about Bio Toilets:
  • Invented & Certified by DRDO & endorsed by the Government of India
  • 100% Sludge – Free Disposal of Human Waste / Eliminates need for Manual Scavenging
  • Decomposes Solid Waste to Water & Bio Gas
  • Eco-Friendly
  • 100% Hazard Free
  • 100% Maintenance Free
  • Functions efficiently at sub zero – 55 Degrees Centigrade
  • Plays a critical role in Preventable Healthcare as the Bio Toilet eliminates disease causing pathogens completely.
Some Questions on Bio Toilets in India and Indian Railways:

Bio-Toilets in India was developed by ?
Ans: Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)

What is Bio-Toilet?
Ans. A toilet in which biological degradation of human waste by inoculums takes place.

How does biodegradation of human waste take place?
Ans. Inoculums digests the human waste converting it into water & gases in the process.

What is the name of Bio-toilet Bacteria?
Ans. Anaerobic Bacteria

What are the steps in anaerobic digetion?
Ans. Large polymers are converted into simpler monomers called hydrolysis => Simple monomers are converted into volatile fatty acids called acidogenesis
 => Volatile fatty acids are converted into acetic acid CO2 & H2 called acetogenesis => Acetate & H2 are converted into CH4 & CO2 called methanogenesis

What is the life of Anaerobic bacteria ?
Ans. Their survival is linked with the availability of nutrients/ feed material. Even if the feed material is not available, bacteria survive but do not multiply/reproduce. And as soon as nutrients are available they again start multiplying.

What is the doubling period for bacterial population ?
Ans. Doubling time of bacteria in the biodigester vary from 30 minutes to 16 hours among the bacteria involved in different steps of bio-degradation.

How many tests to be carried out on Inoculum?
Ans. pH value test, Bio-Gas production, Methane % test & MPN count.

Why is chlorinator provided?
Ans. Chlorinator is provided to disinfect the discharged water which reduces the E-coli form present in effluent.

What is the weight and cost of KMnO4 tablet ?
Ans. 80 gms & cost approx-Rs. 42. Still under optimization phase

What is the total volume of Bio-Toilet tank ?
Ans. 400 Lts.

What is use of KMnO4 (Potassium permanganate) ?
KMnO4 (Potassium permanganate) is an oxidising agent with disinfectant, deodorising and astringent properties. Its chemical formula is KMnO4 and it is sometimes called by its common name Condy's crystals. The main form of use is a potassium permanganate solution that is made by dissolving crystals or powder in water.